Thursday, December 31, 2015

Learning Network Programming with Java

Learning Network Programming with Java

Key Features
  • Learn to deliver superior server-to-server communication through the networking channels
  • Gain expertise of the networking features of your own applications to support various network architectures such as client/server and peer-to-peer
  • Explore the issues that impact scalability, affect security, and allow applications to work in a heterogeneous environment
Book Description
Network-aware applications are becoming more prevalent and play an ever-increasing role in the world today. Connecting and using an Internet-based service is a frequent requirement for many applications. Java provides numerous classes that have evolved over the years to meet evolving network needs. These range from low-level socket and IP-based approaches to those encapsulated in software services.

This book explores how Java supports networks, starting with the basics and then advancing to more complex topics. An overview of each relevant network technology is presented followed by detailed examples of how to use Java to support these technologies.

We start with the basics of networking and then explore how Java supports the development of client/server and peer-to-peer applications. The NIO packages are examined as well as multitasking and how network applications can address practical issues such as security.

A discussion on networking concepts will put many network issues into perspective and let you focus on the appropriate technology for the problem at hand. The examples used will provide a good starting point to develop similar capabilities for many of your network needs.

What you will learn
  • Connect to other applications using sockets
  • Use channels and buffers to enhance communication between applications
  • Access network services and develop client/server applications
  • Explore the critical elements of peer-to-peer applications and current technologies available
  • Use UDP to perform multicasting
  • Address scalability through the use of core and advanced threading techniques
  • Incorporate techniques into an application to make it more secure
  • Configure and address interoperability issues to enable your applications to work in a heterogeneous environment
About the Author
Richard M Reese has worked in both industry and academia. For 17 years, he worked in the telephone and aerospace industries, serving in several capacities, including research and development, software development, supervision, and training. He currently teaches at Tarleton State University, where he has the opportunity to apply his years of industry experience to enhance his teaching.

Richard has written several Java books and a C Pointer book. He uses a concise and easy-to-follow approach to topics at hand. His Java books have addressed EJB 3.1, updates to Java 7 and 8, certification, functional programming, jMonkeyEngine, and natural language processing.

Table of Contents
  1. Getting Started with Network Programming
  2. Network Addressing
  3. NIO Support for Networking
  4. Client/Server Development
  5. Peer-to-Peer Networks
  6. UDP and Multicasting
  7. Network Scalability
  8. Network Security
  9. Network Interoperability


Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Android send data to Bluetooth LE device, using HM-10 BLE Module

The previous post show how to "Modified BluetoothLeGatt sample for HM-10 (Bluetooth LE Module)", to receive data. In the original example code haven't handle send data from Android to Bluetooth LE device. It's modified to echo the received data back HM-10, to sender.


Modify BluetoothLeService.java to add method writeCharacteristic(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) to write data.
/*
 * Copyright (C) 2013 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.android.bluetoothlegatt;

import android.app.Service;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCallback;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattDescriptor;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattService;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothManager;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothProfile;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Binder;
import android.os.IBinder;
import android.util.Log;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * Service for managing connection and data communication with a GATT server hosted on a
 * given Bluetooth LE device.
 */
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HM_10);

    // Implements callback methods for GATT events that the app cares about.  For example,
    // connection change and services discovered.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback = new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status, int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                // Attempts to discover services after successful connection.
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                                         BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                                         int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                                            BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
            broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
        }
    };

    private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
        final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
        sendBroadcast(intent);
    }

    private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                                 final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        final Intent intent = new Intent(action);

        /*
        // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile.  Data parsing is
        // carried out as per profile specifications:
        // http://developer.bluetooth.org/gatt/characteristics/Pages/CharacteristicViewer.aspx?u=org.bluetooth.characteristic.heart_rate_measurement.xml
        if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
            int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
            int format = -1;
            if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
                format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
                Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
            } else {
                format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
                Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
            }
            final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
            Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
        } else {
            // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
            final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
            if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
                final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
                for(byte byteChar : data)
                    stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
                intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" + stringBuilder.toString());
            }
        }
        */

        Log.w(TAG, "broadcastUpdate()");

        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();

        Log.v(TAG, "data.length: " + data.length);

        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data) {
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));

                Log.v(TAG, String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
            }
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" + stringBuilder.toString());
        }

        sendBroadcast(intent);
    }

    public class LocalBinder extends Binder {
        BluetoothLeService getService() {
            return BluetoothLeService.this;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return mBinder;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onUnbind(Intent intent) {
        // After using a given device, you should make sure that BluetoothGatt.close() is called
        // such that resources are cleaned up properly.  In this particular example, close() is
        // invoked when the UI is disconnected from the Service.
        close();
        return super.onUnbind(intent);
    }

    private final IBinder mBinder = new LocalBinder();

    /**
     * Initializes a reference to the local Bluetooth adapter.
     *
     * @return Return true if the initialization is successful.
     */
    public boolean initialize() {
        // For API level 18 and above, get a reference to BluetoothAdapter through
        // BluetoothManager.
        if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
            mBluetoothManager = (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
            if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
                Log.e(TAG, "Unable to initialize BluetoothManager.");
                return false;
            }
        }

        mBluetoothAdapter = mBluetoothManager.getAdapter();
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {
            Log.e(TAG, "Unable to obtain a BluetoothAdapter.");
            return false;
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Connects to the GATT server hosted on the Bluetooth LE device.
     *
     * @param address The device address of the destination device.
     *
     * @return Return true if the connection is initiated successfully. The connection result
     *         is reported asynchronously through the
     *         {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
     *         callback.
     */
    public boolean connect(final String address) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || address == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized or unspecified address.");
            return false;
        }

        // Previously connected device.  Try to reconnect.
        if (mBluetoothDeviceAddress != null && address.equals(mBluetoothDeviceAddress)
                && mBluetoothGatt != null) {
            Log.d(TAG, "Trying to use an existing mBluetoothGatt for connection.");
            if (mBluetoothGatt.connect()) {
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
                return true;
            } else {
                return false;
            }
        }

        final BluetoothDevice device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
        if (device == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Device not found.  Unable to connect.");
            return false;
        }
        // We want to directly connect to the device, so we are setting the autoConnect
        // parameter to false.
        mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);
        Log.d(TAG, "Trying to create a new connection.");
        mBluetoothDeviceAddress = address;
        mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Disconnects an existing connection or cancel a pending connection. The disconnection result
     * is reported asynchronously through the
     * {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
     * callback.
     */
    public void disconnect() {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.disconnect();
    }

    /**
     * After using a given BLE device, the app must call this method to ensure resources are
     * released properly.
     */
    public void close() {
        if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.close();
        mBluetoothGatt = null;
    }

    /**
     * Request a read on a given {@code BluetoothGattCharacteristic}. The read result is reported
     * asynchronously through the {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onCharacteristicRead(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic, int)}
     * callback.
     *
     * @param characteristic The characteristic to read from.
     */
    public void readCharacteristic(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.readCharacteristic(characteristic);
    }

    /**
     * Enables or disables notification on a give characteristic.
     *
     * @param characteristic Characteristic to act on.
     * @param enabled If true, enable notification.  False otherwise.
     */
    public void setCharacteristicNotification(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                                              boolean enabled) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);

        // This is specific to Heart Rate Measurement.
        if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
            BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
                    UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
            descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
            mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Retrieves a list of supported GATT services on the connected device. This should be
     * invoked only after {@code BluetoothGatt#discoverServices()} completes successfully.
     *
     * @return A {@code List} of supported services.
     */
    public List<BluetoothGattService> getSupportedGattServices() {
        if (mBluetoothGatt == null) return null;

        return mBluetoothGatt.getServices();
    }

    public void writeCharacteristic(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        mBluetoothGatt.writeCharacteristic(characteristic);
    }
}



DeviceControlActivity.java
- Add bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10 to keep track of BluetoothGattCharacteristic object of HM-10.
- Echo back data to bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10 in BroadcastReceiver.

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2013 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.android.bluetoothlegatt;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattService;
import android.content.BroadcastReceiver;
import android.content.ComponentName;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.content.IntentFilter;
import android.content.ServiceConnection;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.IBinder;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.ExpandableListView;
import android.widget.SimpleExpandableListAdapter;
import android.widget.TextView;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * For a given BLE device, this Activity provides the user interface to connect, display data,
 * and display GATT services and characteristics supported by the device.  The Activity
 * communicates with {@code BluetoothLeService}, which in turn interacts with the
 * Bluetooth LE API.
 */
public class DeviceControlActivity extends Activity {
    private final static String TAG = DeviceControlActivity.class.getSimpleName();

    public static final String EXTRAS_DEVICE_NAME = "DEVICE_NAME";
    public static final String EXTRAS_DEVICE_ADDRESS = "DEVICE_ADDRESS";

    private TextView mConnectionState;
    private TextView mDataField;
    private String mDeviceName;
    private String mDeviceAddress;
    private ExpandableListView mGattServicesList;
    private BluetoothLeService mBluetoothLeService;
    private ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>> mGattCharacteristics =
            new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();
    private boolean mConnected = false;
    private BluetoothGattCharacteristic mNotifyCharacteristic;

    private final String LIST_NAME = "NAME";
    private final String LIST_UUID = "UUID";

    private BluetoothGattCharacteristic bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10;

    // Code to manage Service lifecycle.
    private final ServiceConnection mServiceConnection = new ServiceConnection() {

        @Override
        public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName componentName, IBinder service) {
            mBluetoothLeService = ((BluetoothLeService.LocalBinder) service).getService();
            if (!mBluetoothLeService.initialize()) {
                Log.e(TAG, "Unable to initialize Bluetooth");
                finish();
            }
            // Automatically connects to the device upon successful start-up initialization.
            mBluetoothLeService.connect(mDeviceAddress);
        }

        @Override
        public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName componentName) {
            mBluetoothLeService = null;
        }
    };

    // Handles various events fired by the Service.
    // ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED: connected to a GATT server.
    // ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED: disconnected from a GATT server.
    // ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED: discovered GATT services.
    // ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE: received data from the device.  This can be a result of read
    //                        or notification operations.
    private final BroadcastReceiver mGattUpdateReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
        @Override
        public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
            final String action = intent.getAction();
            if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED.equals(action)) {
                mConnected = true;
                updateConnectionState(R.string.connected);
                invalidateOptionsMenu();
            } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED.equals(action)) {
                mConnected = false;
                updateConnectionState(R.string.disconnected);
                invalidateOptionsMenu();
                clearUI();
            } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
                // Show all the supported services and characteristics on the user interface.
                displayGattServices(mBluetoothLeService.getSupportedGattServices());
            } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE.equals(action)) {
                displayData(intent.getStringExtra(BluetoothLeService.EXTRA_DATA));

                //Echo back received data, with something inserted
                final byte[] rxBytes = bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10.getValue();
                final byte[] insertSomething = {(byte)'\n'};
                byte[] txBytes = new byte[insertSomething.length + rxBytes.length];
                System.arraycopy(insertSomething, 0, txBytes, 0, insertSomething.length);
                System.arraycopy(rxBytes, 0, txBytes, insertSomething.length, rxBytes.length);

                if(bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10 != null){
                    bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10.setValue(txBytes);
                    mBluetoothLeService.writeCharacteristic(bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10);
                    mBluetoothLeService.setCharacteristicNotification(bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10,true);
                }

            }
        }
    };

    // If a given GATT characteristic is selected, check for supported features.  This sample
    // demonstrates 'Read' and 'Notify' features.  See
    // http://d.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/BluetoothGatt.html for the complete
    // list of supported characteristic features.
    private final ExpandableListView.OnChildClickListener servicesListClickListner =
            new ExpandableListView.OnChildClickListener() {
                @Override
                public boolean onChildClick(ExpandableListView parent, View v, int groupPosition,
                                            int childPosition, long id) {
                    if (mGattCharacteristics != null) {
                        final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic =
                                mGattCharacteristics.get(groupPosition).get(childPosition);
                        final int charaProp = characteristic.getProperties();
                        if ((charaProp | BluetoothGattCharacteristic.PROPERTY_READ) > 0) {
                            // If there is an active notification on a characteristic, clear
                            // it first so it doesn't update the data field on the user interface.
                            if (mNotifyCharacteristic != null) {
                                mBluetoothLeService.setCharacteristicNotification(
                                        mNotifyCharacteristic, false);
                                mNotifyCharacteristic = null;
                            }
                            mBluetoothLeService.readCharacteristic(characteristic);
                        }
                        if ((charaProp | BluetoothGattCharacteristic.PROPERTY_NOTIFY) > 0) {
                            mNotifyCharacteristic = characteristic;
                            mBluetoothLeService.setCharacteristicNotification(
                                    characteristic, true);
                        }
                        return true;
                    }
                    return false;
                }
    };

    private void clearUI() {
        mGattServicesList.setAdapter((SimpleExpandableListAdapter) null);
        mDataField.setText(R.string.no_data);
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.gatt_services_characteristics);

        final Intent intent = getIntent();
        mDeviceName = intent.getStringExtra(EXTRAS_DEVICE_NAME);
        mDeviceAddress = intent.getStringExtra(EXTRAS_DEVICE_ADDRESS);

        // Sets up UI references.
        ((TextView) findViewById(R.id.device_address)).setText(mDeviceAddress);
        mGattServicesList = (ExpandableListView) findViewById(R.id.gatt_services_list);
        mGattServicesList.setOnChildClickListener(servicesListClickListner);
        mConnectionState = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.connection_state);
        mDataField = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.data_value);

        getActionBar().setTitle(mDeviceName);
        getActionBar().setDisplayHomeAsUpEnabled(true);
        Intent gattServiceIntent = new Intent(this, BluetoothLeService.class);
        bindService(gattServiceIntent, mServiceConnection, BIND_AUTO_CREATE);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onResume() {
        super.onResume();
        registerReceiver(mGattUpdateReceiver, makeGattUpdateIntentFilter());
        if (mBluetoothLeService != null) {
            final boolean result = mBluetoothLeService.connect(mDeviceAddress);
            Log.d(TAG, "Connect request result=" + result);
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onPause() {
        super.onPause();
        unregisterReceiver(mGattUpdateReceiver);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        unbindService(mServiceConnection);
        mBluetoothLeService = null;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.gatt_services, menu);
        if (mConnected) {
            menu.findItem(R.id.menu_connect).setVisible(false);
            menu.findItem(R.id.menu_disconnect).setVisible(true);
        } else {
            menu.findItem(R.id.menu_connect).setVisible(true);
            menu.findItem(R.id.menu_disconnect).setVisible(false);
        }
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        switch(item.getItemId()) {
            case R.id.menu_connect:
                mBluetoothLeService.connect(mDeviceAddress);
                return true;
            case R.id.menu_disconnect:
                mBluetoothLeService.disconnect();
                return true;
            case android.R.id.home:
                onBackPressed();
                return true;
        }
        return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
    }

    private void updateConnectionState(final int resourceId) {
        runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                mConnectionState.setText(resourceId);
            }
        });
    }

    private void displayData(String data) {
        if (data != null) {
            mDataField.setText(data);
        }
    }

    // Demonstrates how to iterate through the supported GATT Services/Characteristics.
    // In this sample, we populate the data structure that is bound to the ExpandableListView
    // on the UI.
    private void displayGattServices(List<BluetoothGattService> gattServices) {

        UUID UUID_HM_10 =
                UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HM_10);

        if (gattServices == null) return;
        String uuid = null;
        String unknownServiceString = getResources().getString(R.string.unknown_service);
        String unknownCharaString = getResources().getString(R.string.unknown_characteristic);
        ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattServiceData = new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
        ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>> gattCharacteristicData
                = new ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>>();
        mGattCharacteristics = new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();

        // Loops through available GATT Services.
        for (BluetoothGattService gattService : gattServices) {
            HashMap<String, String> currentServiceData = new HashMap<String, String>();
            uuid = gattService.getUuid().toString();
            currentServiceData.put(
                    LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid, unknownServiceString));
            currentServiceData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
            gattServiceData.add(currentServiceData);

            ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattCharacteristicGroupData =
                    new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
            List<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> gattCharacteristics =
                    gattService.getCharacteristics();
            ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> charas =
                    new ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>();

            // Loops through available Characteristics.
            for (BluetoothGattCharacteristic gattCharacteristic : gattCharacteristics) {
                charas.add(gattCharacteristic);
                HashMap<String, String> currentCharaData = new HashMap<String, String>();
                uuid = gattCharacteristic.getUuid().toString();
                currentCharaData.put(
                        LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid, unknownCharaString));
                currentCharaData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
                gattCharacteristicGroupData.add(currentCharaData);

                //Check if it is "HM_10"
                if(uuid.equals(SampleGattAttributes.HM_10)){
                    bluetoothGattCharacteristicHM_10 = gattService.getCharacteristic(UUID_HM_10);

                }
            }
            mGattCharacteristics.add(charas);
            gattCharacteristicData.add(gattCharacteristicGroupData);
        }

        SimpleExpandableListAdapter gattServiceAdapter = new SimpleExpandableListAdapter(
                this,
                gattServiceData,
                android.R.layout.simple_expandable_list_item_2,
                new String[] {LIST_NAME, LIST_UUID},
                new int[] { android.R.id.text1, android.R.id.text2 },
                gattCharacteristicData,
                android.R.layout.simple_expandable_list_item_2,
                new String[] {LIST_NAME, LIST_UUID},
                new int[] { android.R.id.text1, android.R.id.text2 }
        );
        mGattServicesList.setAdapter(gattServiceAdapter);
    }

    private static IntentFilter makeGattUpdateIntentFilter() {
        final IntentFilter intentFilter = new IntentFilter();
        intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED);
        intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED);
        intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
        intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE);
        return intentFilter;
    }
}


download filesDownload the files (Android Studio Format) .

Monday, December 28, 2015

OpenCV Android Programming By Example

Develop vision-aware and intelligent Android applications with the robust OpenCV library

OpenCV Android Programming By Example

About This Book
  • This is the most up-to-date book on OpenCV Android programming on the market at the moment. There is no direct competition for our title.
  • Based on a technology that is increasing in popularity, proven by activity in forums related to this topic.
  • This book uniquely covers applications such as the Panoramic viewer and Automatic Selfie, among others.
Who This Book Is For
If you are an Android developer and want to know how to implement vision-aware applications using OpenCV, then this book is definitely for you.

It would be very helpful if you understand the basics of image processing and computer vision, but no prior experience is required

What You Will Learn
  • Identify and install all the elements needed to start building vision-aware Android applications
  • Explore image representation, colored and gray scale
  • Recognize and apply convolution operations and filtering to deal with noisy data
  • Use different shape analysis techniques
  • Extract and identify interest points in an image
  • Understand and perform object detection
  • Run native computer vision algorithms and gain performance boosts
In Detail
Starting from the basics of computer vision and OpenCV, we'll take you all the way to creating exciting applications. You will discover that, though computer vision is a challenging subject, the ideas and algorithms used are simple and intuitive, and you will appreciate the abstraction layer that OpenCV uses to do the heavy lifting for you. Packed with many examples, the book will help you understand the main data structures used within OpenCV, and how you can use them to gain performance boosts. Next we will discuss and use several image processing algorithms such as histogram equalization, filters, and color space conversion. You then will learn about image gradients and how they are used in many shape analysis techniques such as edge detection, Hough Line Transform, and Hough Circle Transform. In addition to using shape analysis to find things in images, you will learn how to describe objects in images in a more robust way using different feature detectors and descriptors.

By the end of this book, you will be able to make intelligent decisions using the famous Adaboost learning algorithm.

Style and approach
An easy-to-follow tutorial packed with hands-on examples. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and the book supplies full details of the concepts used for added proficiency.

Sunday, December 27, 2015

Android Chat example, with server sending individual message to specify client.


Refer to my old post of Simple Android Chat Application, server side, and client side. Function to send sending individual message to specify client is added in server side.


uses-permission of "android.permission.INTERNET" is needed in AndroidManifest.xml, for both server and client.


Server side:

MainActivity.java
package com.blogspot.android_er.androidchatserver;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.Spinner;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.Toast;

import java.io.DataInputStream;
import java.io.DataOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.NetworkInterface;
import java.net.ServerSocket;
import java.net.Socket;
import java.net.SocketException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.List;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    static final int SocketServerPORT = 8080;

    TextView infoIp, infoPort, chatMsg;
    Spinner spUsers;
    ArrayAdapter<ChatClient> spUsersAdapter;
    Button btnSentTo;

    String msgLog = "";

    List<ChatClient> userList;

    ServerSocket serverSocket;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        infoIp = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.infoip);
        infoPort = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.infoport);
        chatMsg = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.chatmsg);

        spUsers = (Spinner) findViewById(R.id.spusers);
        userList = new ArrayList<ChatClient>();
        spUsersAdapter = new ArrayAdapter<ChatClient>(
                MainActivity.this, android.R.layout.simple_spinner_item, userList);
        spUsersAdapter.setDropDownViewResource(android.R.layout.simple_spinner_dropdown_item);
        spUsers.setAdapter(spUsersAdapter);

        btnSentTo = (Button)findViewById(R.id.sentto);
        btnSentTo.setOnClickListener(btnSentToOnClickListener);

        infoIp.setText(getIpAddress());

        ChatServerThread chatServerThread = new ChatServerThread();
        chatServerThread.start();
    }

    View.OnClickListener btnSentToOnClickListener = new View.OnClickListener() {
        @Override
        public void onClick(View v) {
            ChatClient client = (ChatClient)spUsers.getSelectedItem();
            if(client != null){
                String dummyMsg = "Dummy message from server.\n";
                client.chatThread.sendMsg(dummyMsg);
                msgLog += "- Dummy message to " + client.name + "\n";
                chatMsg.setText(msgLog);

            }else{
                Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, "No user connected", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
            }
        }
    };

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();

        if (serverSocket != null) {
            try {
                serverSocket.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

    private class ChatServerThread extends Thread {

        @Override
        public void run() {
            Socket socket = null;

            try {
                serverSocket = new ServerSocket(SocketServerPORT);
                MainActivity.this.runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {

                    @Override
                    public void run() {
                        infoPort.setText("I'm waiting here: "
                                + serverSocket.getLocalPort());
                    }
                });

                while (true) {
                    socket = serverSocket.accept();
                    ChatClient client = new ChatClient();
                    userList.add(client);
                    ConnectThread connectThread = new ConnectThread(client, socket);
                    connectThread.start();

                    runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
                        @Override
                        public void run() {
                            spUsersAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
                        }
                    });
                }

            } catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } finally {
                if (socket != null) {
                    try {
                        socket.close();
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            }

        }

    }

    private class ConnectThread extends Thread {

        Socket socket;
        ChatClient connectClient;
        String msgToSend = "";

        ConnectThread(ChatClient client, Socket socket){
            connectClient = client;
            this.socket= socket;
            client.socket = socket;
            client.chatThread = this;
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            DataInputStream dataInputStream = null;
            DataOutputStream dataOutputStream = null;

            try {
                dataInputStream = new DataInputStream(socket.getInputStream());
                dataOutputStream = new DataOutputStream(socket.getOutputStream());

                String n = dataInputStream.readUTF();

                connectClient.name = n;

                msgLog += connectClient.name + " connected@" +
                        connectClient.socket.getInetAddress() +
                        ":" + connectClient.socket.getPort() + "\n";
                MainActivity.this.runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {

                    @Override
                    public void run() {
                        chatMsg.setText(msgLog);
                    }
                });

                dataOutputStream.writeUTF("Welcome " + n + "\n");
                dataOutputStream.flush();

                broadcastMsg(n + " join our chat.\n");

                while (true) {
                    if (dataInputStream.available() > 0) {
                        String newMsg = dataInputStream.readUTF();


                        msgLog += n + ": " + newMsg;
                        MainActivity.this.runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {

                            @Override
                            public void run() {
                                chatMsg.setText(msgLog);
                            }
                        });

                        broadcastMsg(n + ": " + newMsg);
                    }

                    if(!msgToSend.equals("")){
                        dataOutputStream.writeUTF(msgToSend);
                        dataOutputStream.flush();
                        msgToSend = "";
                    }

                }

            } catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } finally {
                if (dataInputStream != null) {
                    try {
                        dataInputStream.close();
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }

                if (dataOutputStream != null) {
                    try {
                        dataOutputStream.close();
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        // TODO Auto-generated catch block
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }

                userList.remove(connectClient);

                MainActivity.this.runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {

                    @Override
                    public void run() {
                        spUsersAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
                        Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this,
                                connectClient.name + " removed.", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

                        msgLog += "-- " + connectClient.name + " leaved\n";
                        MainActivity.this.runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {

                            @Override
                            public void run() {
                                chatMsg.setText(msgLog);
                            }
                        });

                        broadcastMsg("-- " + connectClient.name + " leaved\n");
                    }
                });
            }

        }

        private void sendMsg(String msg){
            msgToSend = msg;
        }

    }

    private void broadcastMsg(String msg){
        for(int i=0; i<userList.size(); i++){
            userList.get(i).chatThread.sendMsg(msg);
            msgLog += "- send to " + userList.get(i).name + "\n";
        }

        MainActivity.this.runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {

            @Override
            public void run() {
                chatMsg.setText(msgLog);
            }
        });
    }

    private String getIpAddress() {
        String ip = "";
        try {
            Enumeration<NetworkInterface> enumNetworkInterfaces = NetworkInterface
                    .getNetworkInterfaces();
            while (enumNetworkInterfaces.hasMoreElements()) {
                NetworkInterface networkInterface = enumNetworkInterfaces
                        .nextElement();
                Enumeration<InetAddress> enumInetAddress = networkInterface
                        .getInetAddresses();
                while (enumInetAddress.hasMoreElements()) {
                    InetAddress inetAddress = enumInetAddress.nextElement();

                    if (inetAddress.isSiteLocalAddress()) {
                        ip += "SiteLocalAddress: "
                                + inetAddress.getHostAddress() + "\n";
                    }

                }

            }

        } catch (SocketException e) {
            // TODO Auto-generated catch block
            e.printStackTrace();
            ip += "Something Wrong! " + e.toString() + "\n";
        }

        return ip;
    }

    class ChatClient {
        String name;
        Socket socket;
        ConnectThread chatThread;

        @Override
        public String toString() {
            return name + ": " + socket.getInetAddress().getHostAddress();
        }
    }
}


activity_main.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:padding="16dp"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    tools:context="com.blogspot.android_er.androidchatserver.MainActivity">

    <TextView
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal"
        android:autoLink="web"
        android:text="http://android-er.blogspot.com/"
        android:textStyle="bold" />

    <TextView
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="Char Server"
        android:textStyle="bold" />

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/infoport"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textStyle="italic" />

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/infoip"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textStyle="italic" />

    <Spinner
        android:id="@+id/spusers"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"/>

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/sentto"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="Sent msg to individual user"/>

    <ScrollView
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent" >

        <TextView
            android:id="@+id/chatmsg"
            android:layout_width="wrap_content"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content" />
    </ScrollView>
</LinearLayout>



download filesDownload the server side files (Android Studio Format) .

Client side same as in the post "Simple Android Chat Application, client side" in Android Studio form.

download filesDownload the client side files (Android Studio Format) .

Saturday, December 26, 2015

Make TextView selectable, select and copy


Example to make TextView selectable, you can select and copy text from TextView and paste to other field, such as EditText.


Add android:textIsSelectable="true" in layout XML:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:padding="16dp"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    tools:context="com.blogspot.android_er.androidselectabletext.MainActivity">

    <TextView
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal"
        android:autoLink="web"
        android:text="http://android-er.blogspot.com/"
        android:textStyle="bold" />

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/textview1"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textSize="28sp"
        android:text="Default TextView, un-selectable"/>

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/textview2"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textIsSelectable="true"
        android:textSize="28sp"
        android:text="Selectable TextView, by XML"/>

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/textview3"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textSize="28sp"
        android:text="Selectable TextView, by Java code"/>

    <EditText
        android:id="@+id/edittext"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textSize="28sp"/>
</LinearLayout>


or call setTextIsSelectable(true) method of the TextView object in Java code:
package com.blogspot.android_er.androidselectabletext;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    TextView textView1, textView2, textView3;
    EditText editText;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        textView1 = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.textview1);
        textView2 = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.textview2);
        textView3 = (TextView)findViewById(R.id.textview3);
        textView3.setTextIsSelectable(true);
        editText = (EditText)findViewById(R.id.edittext);
    }
}



Implement dummy Heart Rate Measurement profile using Arduino Due + HM-10, for BluetoothLeGatt sample code

Previous post "Connect HM-10 (BLE Module) to Android device, with BluetoothLeGatt sample project" show step-by-step to modify Android BluetoothLeGatt sample program, by-pass Heart Rate Measurement profile handling to show function of HM-10.

Here we will send dummy data of Heart Rate Measurement profile by  Arduino Due + HM-10.


First of all, edit BluetoothLeService.java to resume original handling for Heart Rate Measurement profile:
/*
 * Copyright (C) 2013 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.android.bluetoothlegatt;

import android.app.Service;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCallback;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattDescriptor;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattService;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothManager;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothProfile;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Binder;
import android.os.IBinder;
import android.util.Log;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * Service for managing connection and data communication with a GATT server hosted on a
 * given Bluetooth LE device.
 */
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HM_10);

    // Implements callback methods for GATT events that the app cares about.  For example,
    // connection change and services discovered.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback = new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status, int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                // Attempts to discover services after successful connection.
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                                         BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                                         int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                                            BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
            broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
        }
    };

    private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
        final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
        sendBroadcast(intent);
    }

    private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                                 final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        final Intent intent = new Intent(action);

        // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile.  Data parsing is
        // carried out as per profile specifications:
        // http://developer.bluetooth.org/gatt/characteristics/Pages/CharacteristicViewer.aspx?u=org.bluetooth.characteristic.heart_rate_measurement.xml
        if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
            int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
            int format = -1;
            if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
                format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
                Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
            } else {
                format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
                Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
            }
            final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
            Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
        } else {
            // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
            final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
            if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
                final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
                for(byte byteChar : data)
                    stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
                intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" + stringBuilder.toString());
            }
        }

        /*
        Log.v("AndroidLE", "broadcastUpdate()");

        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();

        Log.v("AndroidLE", "data.length: " + data.length);

        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data) {
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));

                Log.v("AndroidLE", String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
            }
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" + stringBuilder.toString());
        }
        */

        sendBroadcast(intent);
    }

    public class LocalBinder extends Binder {
        BluetoothLeService getService() {
            return BluetoothLeService.this;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return mBinder;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onUnbind(Intent intent) {
        // After using a given device, you should make sure that BluetoothGatt.close() is called
        // such that resources are cleaned up properly.  In this particular example, close() is
        // invoked when the UI is disconnected from the Service.
        close();
        return super.onUnbind(intent);
    }

    private final IBinder mBinder = new LocalBinder();

    /**
     * Initializes a reference to the local Bluetooth adapter.
     *
     * @return Return true if the initialization is successful.
     */
    public boolean initialize() {
        // For API level 18 and above, get a reference to BluetoothAdapter through
        // BluetoothManager.
        if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
            mBluetoothManager = (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
            if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
                Log.e(TAG, "Unable to initialize BluetoothManager.");
                return false;
            }
        }

        mBluetoothAdapter = mBluetoothManager.getAdapter();
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {
            Log.e(TAG, "Unable to obtain a BluetoothAdapter.");
            return false;
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Connects to the GATT server hosted on the Bluetooth LE device.
     *
     * @param address The device address of the destination device.
     *
     * @return Return true if the connection is initiated successfully. The connection result
     *         is reported asynchronously through the
     *         {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
     *         callback.
     */
    public boolean connect(final String address) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || address == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized or unspecified address.");
            return false;
        }

        // Previously connected device.  Try to reconnect.
        if (mBluetoothDeviceAddress != null && address.equals(mBluetoothDeviceAddress)
                && mBluetoothGatt != null) {
            Log.d(TAG, "Trying to use an existing mBluetoothGatt for connection.");
            if (mBluetoothGatt.connect()) {
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
                return true;
            } else {
                return false;
            }
        }

        final BluetoothDevice device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
        if (device == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Device not found.  Unable to connect.");
            return false;
        }
        // We want to directly connect to the device, so we are setting the autoConnect
        // parameter to false.
        mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);
        Log.d(TAG, "Trying to create a new connection.");
        mBluetoothDeviceAddress = address;
        mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Disconnects an existing connection or cancel a pending connection. The disconnection result
     * is reported asynchronously through the
     * {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
     * callback.
     */
    public void disconnect() {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.disconnect();
    }

    /**
     * After using a given BLE device, the app must call this method to ensure resources are
     * released properly.
     */
    public void close() {
        if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.close();
        mBluetoothGatt = null;
    }

    /**
     * Request a read on a given {@code BluetoothGattCharacteristic}. The read result is reported
     * asynchronously through the {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onCharacteristicRead(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic, int)}
     * callback.
     *
     * @param characteristic The characteristic to read from.
     */
    public void readCharacteristic(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.readCharacteristic(characteristic);
    }

    /**
     * Enables or disables notification on a give characteristic.
     *
     * @param characteristic Characteristic to act on.
     * @param enabled If true, enable notification.  False otherwise.
     */
    public void setCharacteristicNotification(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                                              boolean enabled) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);

        // This is specific to Heart Rate Measurement.
        if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
            BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
                    UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
            descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
            mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Retrieves a list of supported GATT services on the connected device. This should be
     * invoked only after {@code BluetoothGatt#discoverServices()} completes successfully.
     *
     * @return A {@code List} of supported services.
     */
    public List<BluetoothGattService> getSupportedGattServices() {
        if (mBluetoothGatt == null) return null;

        return mBluetoothGatt.getServices();
    }
}


Connect Arduino Due and HM-10:
HM-10 VCC - Arduino Due 3.3V
HM-10 GND - Arduino Due GND
HM-10 Tx - Arduino Due Rx
HM-10 Rx - Arduino Due Tx


Program on Arduino Due, DueSimHeartRate.ino. It only send dummy heart rate data to serial port.
int LED = 13;
boolean LEDst = false;

byte c;

void setup() {
  Serial3.begin(9600);
  pinMode(LED, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(LED, LEDst);
}

void loop() {
  delay(1000);
  c = (byte)0x00;
  Serial3.write(c);
  c = (byte)80;
  Serial3.write(c);

  delay(1000);
  c = (byte)0x00;
  Serial3.write(c);
  c = (byte)81;
  Serial3.write(c);

  delay(10);
  c = (byte)0x00;
  Serial3.write(c);
  c = (byte)82;
  Serial3.write(c);

  ToggleLED();
}

void ToggleLED(){
  digitalWrite(LED, LEDst = !LEDst);
}


Thursday, December 24, 2015

Modified BluetoothLeGatt sample connect AT-09 (Bluetooth LE Module)

It's same code in "Connect HM-10 (BLE Module) to Android device, with BluetoothLeGatt sample project", to connect to AT-09 instead of HM-10.





According to the selling, AT-09 compatible with HM-10 (pin-to-pin NOT compatible). So the modified BluetoothLeGatt sample can connect to AT-09 also.



In my test, I tried to send AT command to AT-09 via FTDI adapter, but no respond returned! Actually I haven't received anything from AT-09/FTDI. It may be something wrong on my AT-09 sample, or on AT-09 TX - FTDI Adapter RX path, or may be somethong wrong on me!

Updated@2016-06-20:
According to Anonymous comment:
AT-09 is actually BLE-CC41-A module.
They need {CR}{LF} after AT command.

details please check the link in the comment.


Tuesday, December 22, 2015

BB-8 App-Enabled Droid

Meet BB-8 - the app-enabled Droid™ that's as authentic as it is advanced. BB-8 has something unlike any other robot - an adaptive personality that changes as you play. Based on your interactions, BB-8 will show a range of expressions and even perk up when you give voice commands. Set it to patrol and watch your Droid explore autonomously, make up your own adventure and guide BB8 yourself, or create and view holographic recordings.

It’s now possible to explore the galaxy with your own trusty Astromech Droid by your side. BB-8 is more than a toy - it’s your companion. Learn more: sphero.com/starwars

BB8- Built by Sphero




Sphero BB-8 App-Enabled Droid
  • Authentic Movement: Guide your BB-8 with a smartphone or tablet
  • Listens & Responds: BB-8 recognizes and reacts to your voice
  • Holographic Messaging: Record and view virtual holographic videos with BB-8
  • Autonomous Behavior: BB-8 has a mind of its own - explore the Star Wars galaxy together
  • Adaptive Personality: Your BB-8's unique attitude and actions evolve as you interact
  • Authentic Movement: Guide your BB-8 with a smartphone or tablet
  • Listens & Responds: BB-8 recognizes and reacts to your voice
  • Holographic Messaging: Record and view virtual holographic videos with BB-8
  • Autonomous Behavior: BB-8 has a mind of its own - explore the Star Wars galaxy together
  • Adaptive Personality: Your BB-8's unique attitude and actions evolve as you interact
  • iOS & Android compatible
  • Top speed of 4.5 mph (7ft/s)
  • Bluetooth Smart BLE connection (100 foot range)

Monday, December 21, 2015

Connect HM-10 (BLE Module) to Android device, with BluetoothLeGatt sample project

Android 4.3 (API Level 18) introduces built-in platform support for Bluetooth Low Energy, or called BLE, Bluetooth 4.

HM-10 is a BLE Bluetooth 4.0 Serial Wireless Module. In this test, nothing to do on HM-10, except apply 3.3V on the power pins.


BluetoothLeGatt is a sample demonstrates how to use the Bluetooth LE Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) to transmit arbitrary data between devices.



This video show how to import BluetoothLeGatt sample project in Android Studio, and run on Android device, to scan and connect to HM-10.



Then, we are going to modify something to make the sample app recognize HM-10.


Refer to the post "Test HM-10 Bluetooth 4.0 BLE module with FTDI adapter", the default service UUID and Characteristic of HM-10 are:
- Service UUID: 0xFFE0
- Characteristic: 0xFFE1

Edit SampleGattAttributes.java of BluetoothLeGatt sample to match 0xffe0 and 0xff1, and correct BluetoothLeService.java accordingly. Now, the sample app can recognize HM-10.

This video show how:


SampleGattAttributes.java
/*
 * Copyright (C) 2013 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.android.bluetoothlegatt;

import java.util.HashMap;

/**
 * This class includes a small subset of standard GATT attributes for demonstration purposes.
 */
public class SampleGattAttributes {
    private static HashMap<String, String> attributes = new HashMap();
    public static String HM_10 = "0000ffe1-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb";
    public static String CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG = "00002902-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb";

    static {
        // Sample Services.
        attributes.put("0000ffe0-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb", "HM-10 Service");
        attributes.put("0000180a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb", "Device Information Service");
        // Sample Characteristics.
        attributes.put(HM_10, "HM-10 Module");
        attributes.put("00002a29-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb", "Manufacturer Name String");
    }

    public static String lookup(String uuid, String defaultName) {
        String name = attributes.get(uuid);
        return name == null ? defaultName : name;
    }
}


BluetoothLeService.java
    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HM_10);


In the last step in this post, I want to make the BluetoothLeGatt app to receive something from HM-10.

In HM-10 side, FTDI USB-Serial adapter is needed to connect HM-10 to PC via USB/Serial. Such that I can enter something in PC, using Arduino Serial Monitor. Refer Arduino-er: Test HM-10 Bluetooth 4.0 BLE module with FTDI adapter, how to connect PC, FTDI USB-Serial adapter and HM-10.

The original BluetoothLeGatt example target for the Heart Rate Measurement profile. In our demo, we target to receive simple serial data, so modify to by-pass the Heart Rate Measurement profile handling.

Edit broadcastUpdate(final String action, final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) method of BluetoothLeService.java.

This video show how to:


BluetoothLeService.java
/*
 * Copyright (C) 2013 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.android.bluetoothlegatt;

import android.app.Service;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothDevice;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCallback;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattDescriptor;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattService;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothManager;
import android.bluetooth.BluetoothProfile;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Binder;
import android.os.IBinder;
import android.util.Log;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * Service for managing connection and data communication with a GATT server hosted on a
 * given Bluetooth LE device.
 */
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HM_10);

    // Implements callback methods for GATT events that the app cares about.  For example,
    // connection change and services discovered.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback = new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status, int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                // Attempts to discover services after successful connection.
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                                         BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                                         int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                                            BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
            broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
        }
    };

    private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
        final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
        sendBroadcast(intent);
    }

    private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                                 final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        final Intent intent = new Intent(action);


        /*
        // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile.  Data parsing is
        // carried out as per profile specifications:
        // http://developer.bluetooth.org/gatt/characteristics/Pages/CharacteristicViewer.aspx?u=org.bluetooth.characteristic.heart_rate_measurement.xml
        if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
            int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
            int format = -1;
            if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
                format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
                Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
            } else {
                format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
                Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
            }
            final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
            Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
        } else {
            // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
            final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
            if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
                final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
                for(byte byteChar : data)
                    stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
                intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" + stringBuilder.toString());
            }
        }
        */

        Log.v("AndroidLE", "broadcastUpdate()");

        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();

        Log.v("AndroidLE", "data.length: " + data.length);

        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data) {
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));

                Log.v("AndroidLE", String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
            }
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" + stringBuilder.toString());
        }

        sendBroadcast(intent);
    }

    public class LocalBinder extends Binder {
        BluetoothLeService getService() {
            return BluetoothLeService.this;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return mBinder;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onUnbind(Intent intent) {
        // After using a given device, you should make sure that BluetoothGatt.close() is called
        // such that resources are cleaned up properly.  In this particular example, close() is
        // invoked when the UI is disconnected from the Service.
        close();
        return super.onUnbind(intent);
    }

    private final IBinder mBinder = new LocalBinder();

    /**
     * Initializes a reference to the local Bluetooth adapter.
     *
     * @return Return true if the initialization is successful.
     */
    public boolean initialize() {
        // For API level 18 and above, get a reference to BluetoothAdapter through
        // BluetoothManager.
        if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
            mBluetoothManager = (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
            if (mBluetoothManager == null) {
                Log.e(TAG, "Unable to initialize BluetoothManager.");
                return false;
            }
        }

        mBluetoothAdapter = mBluetoothManager.getAdapter();
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null) {
            Log.e(TAG, "Unable to obtain a BluetoothAdapter.");
            return false;
        }

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Connects to the GATT server hosted on the Bluetooth LE device.
     *
     * @param address The device address of the destination device.
     *
     * @return Return true if the connection is initiated successfully. The connection result
     *         is reported asynchronously through the
     *         {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
     *         callback.
     */
    public boolean connect(final String address) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || address == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized or unspecified address.");
            return false;
        }

        // Previously connected device.  Try to reconnect.
        if (mBluetoothDeviceAddress != null && address.equals(mBluetoothDeviceAddress)
                && mBluetoothGatt != null) {
            Log.d(TAG, "Trying to use an existing mBluetoothGatt for connection.");
            if (mBluetoothGatt.connect()) {
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
                return true;
            } else {
                return false;
            }
        }

        final BluetoothDevice device = mBluetoothAdapter.getRemoteDevice(address);
        if (device == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Device not found.  Unable to connect.");
            return false;
        }
        // We want to directly connect to the device, so we are setting the autoConnect
        // parameter to false.
        mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);
        Log.d(TAG, "Trying to create a new connection.");
        mBluetoothDeviceAddress = address;
        mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTING;
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Disconnects an existing connection or cancel a pending connection. The disconnection result
     * is reported asynchronously through the
     * {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onConnectionStateChange(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, int, int)}
     * callback.
     */
    public void disconnect() {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.disconnect();
    }

    /**
     * After using a given BLE device, the app must call this method to ensure resources are
     * released properly.
     */
    public void close() {
        if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.close();
        mBluetoothGatt = null;
    }

    /**
     * Request a read on a given {@code BluetoothGattCharacteristic}. The read result is reported
     * asynchronously through the {@code BluetoothGattCallback#onCharacteristicRead(android.bluetooth.BluetoothGatt, android.bluetooth.BluetoothGattCharacteristic, int)}
     * callback.
     *
     * @param characteristic The characteristic to read from.
     */
    public void readCharacteristic(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.readCharacteristic(characteristic);
    }

    /**
     * Enables or disables notification on a give characteristic.
     *
     * @param characteristic Characteristic to act on.
     * @param enabled If true, enable notification.  False otherwise.
     */
    public void setCharacteristicNotification(BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                                              boolean enabled) {
        if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || mBluetoothGatt == null) {
            Log.w(TAG, "BluetoothAdapter not initialized");
            return;
        }
        mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);

        // This is specific to Heart Rate Measurement.
        if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
            BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
                    UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
            descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
            mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Retrieves a list of supported GATT services on the connected device. This should be
     * invoked only after {@code BluetoothGatt#discoverServices()} completes successfully.
     *
     * @return A {@code List} of supported services.
     */
    public List<BluetoothGattService> getSupportedGattServices() {
        if (mBluetoothGatt == null) return null;

        return mBluetoothGatt.getServices();
    }
}



Next:
Android echo data to Bluetooth LE device, using HM-10 BLE Module


Another BLE Module, AT-09, is compatible to HM-10:
Modified BluetoothLeGatt sample connect AT-09 (Bluetooth LE Module)

More
Implement dummy Heart Rate Measurement profile using Arduino Due + HM-10, for BluetoothLeGatt sample code